Basic profiling tool - gprof
Required '-pg' added for compilation and linking.
Profile results are stored in file 'gmon.out'. Default place for the file is working directory of the program being profiled. Important - process has to be closed with normal termination - exit() or end of main() function - profile file is saved on process termination.
Potentially interesting - environmental variables for gprof (not sure if working):
GMON_OUT_PREFIX, PROFDIR, PROFFLAGS.
Tool from Intel - Pin
GNU cflow analyzes a collection of C source files and prints a graph, charting control flow within the program.
ltrace, ptrace, etrace, ftrace
SystemTap - http://sourceware.org/systemtap/examples/general/para-callgraph.stp - Observe, systemtap and oprofile updates